Text Formatting

Pyrogram uses a custom Markdown dialect for text formatting which adds some unique features that make writing styled texts easier in both Markdown and HTML. You can send sophisticated text messages and media captions using a great variety of decorations that can also be nested in order to combine multiple styles together.

Basic Styles

When formatting your messages, you can choose between Markdown-style, HTML-style or both (default). The following is a list of the basic styles currently supported by Pyrogram.

Note

User text mentions are only guaranteed to work if you have already met the user (in groups or private chats).

Markdown Style

To strictly use this mode, pass “markdown” to the parse_mode parameter when using send_message(). Use the following syntax in your message:

**bold**

__italic__

--underline--

~~strike~~

[text URL](https://docs.pyrogram.org/)

[text user mention](tg://user?id=23122162)

`inline fixed-width code`

```
pre-formatted
  fixed-width
    code block
```

Example:

app.send_message(
    "haskell",
    (
        "**bold**, "
        "__italic__, "
        "--underline--, "
        "~~strike~~, "
        "[mention](tg://user?id=23122162), "
        "[URL](https://pyrogram.org), "
        "`code`, "
        "```"
        "for i in range(10):\n"
        "    print(i)"
        "```"
    ),
    parse_mode="markdown"
)

HTML Style

To strictly use this mode, pass “html” to the parse_mode parameter when using send_message(). The following tags are currently supported:

<b>bold</b>, <strong>bold</strong>

<i>italic</i>, <em>italic</em>

<u>underline</u>

<s>strike</s>, <del>strike</del>, <strike>strike</strike>

<a href="http://docs.pyrogram.org/">text URL</a>

<a href="tg://user?id=23122162">inline mention</a>

<code>inline fixed-width code</code>

<pre>
pre-formatted
  fixed-width
    code block
</pre>

Example:

app.send_message(
    "haskell",
    (
        "<b>bold</b>, "
        "<i>italic</i>, "
        "<u>underline</u>, "
        "<s>strike</s>, "
        "<a href=\"tg://user?id=23122162\">mention</a>, "
        "<a href=\"https://pyrogram.org/\">URL</a>, "
        "<code>code</code>\n\n"
        "<pre>"
        "for i in range(10):\n"
        "    print(i)"
        "</pre>"
    ),
    parse_mode="html"
)

Note

All <, > and & symbols that are not a part of a tag or an HTML entity must be replaced with the corresponding HTML entities (< with &lt;, > with &gt; and & with &amp;). You can use this snippet to quickly escape those characters:

import html

text = "<my text>"
text = html.escape(text)

print(text)
&lt;my text&gt;

Different Styles

By default, when ignoring the parse_mode parameter, both Markdown and HTML styles are enabled together. This means you can combine together both syntaxes in the same text:

app.send_message("haskell", "**bold**, <i>italic</i>")

Result:

bold, italic

If you don’t like this behaviour you can always choose to only enable either Markdown or HTML in strict mode by passing “markdown” or “html” as argument to the parse_mode parameter.

app.send_message("haskell", "**bold**, <i>italic</i>", parse_mode="markdown")
app.send_message("haskell", "**bold**, <i>italic</i>", parse_mode="html")

Result:

bold, <i>italic</i>

**bold**, italic

In case you want to completely turn off the style parser, simply pass None to parse_mode. The text will be sent as-is.

app.send_message("haskell", "**bold**, <i>italic</i>", parse_mode=None)

Result:

**bold**, <i>italic</i>

Nested and Overlapping Entities

You can also style texts with more than one decoration at once by nesting entities together. For example, you can send a text message with both bold and underline styles, or a text that has both italic and strike styles, and you can still combine both Markdown and HTML together.

Here there are some example texts you can try sending:

Markdown:

  • **bold, --underline--**

  • **bold __italic --underline ~~strike~~--__**

  • **bold __and** italic__

HTML:

  • <b>bold, <u>underline</u></b>

  • <b>bold <i>italic <u>underline <s>strike</s></u></i></b>

  • <b>bold <i>and</b> italic</i>

Combined:

  • --you can combine <i>HTML</i> with **Markdown**--

  • **and also <i>overlap** --entities</i> this way--