Handling Updates

Calling API methods sequentially is one way to use Pyrogram, but how to react when, for example, a new message arrives? This page deals with updates and how to handle such events in Pyrogram.


Defining Updates

As hinted already, updates are simply events that happen in your Telegram account (incoming messages, new members join, bot button presses, etc.), which are meant to notify you about a new specific state that has changed. These updates are handled by registering one or more callback functions in your app using Handlers.

Each handler deals with a specific event and once a matching update arrives from Telegram, your registered callback function will be called back by the framework and its body executed.

Registering a Handler

To explain how handlers work let’s examine the one which will be in charge for handling Message updates coming from all around your chats. Every other kind of handler shares the same setup logic and you should not have troubles settings them up once you learn from this section.

Using Decorators

The most elegant way to register a message handler is by using the on_message() decorator:

from pyrogram import Client

app = Client("my_account")

@app.on_message()
async def my_handler(client, message):
    await message.forward("me")

app.run()

The defined function my_handler, which accepts the two arguments (client, message), will be the function that gets executed every time a new message arrives.

In the last line we see again the run() method, this time used without any argument. Its purpose here is simply to automatically start(), keep the Client online so that it can listen for updates and stop() it once you hit CTRL+C.

Synchronous handlers

You can also have synchronous handlers; you only need to define the callback function without using async def and call API methods by not placing await in front of them:

@app.on_message()
def my_handler(client, message):
    message.forward("me")

Note

You can mix def and async def handlers as much as you like, Pyrogram will still work concurrently and efficiently regardless of what you choose. However, it is recommended to use Pyrogram in its native, asynchronous form at all times, unless you want to write something without the boilerplate or in case you want to combine Pyrogram with other libraries that are not async.

Using add_handler()

The add_handler() method takes any handler instance that wraps around your defined callback function and registers it in your Client. It is useful in case you want to programmatically add handlers.

from pyrogram import Client
from pyrogram.handlers import MessageHandler

async def my_function(client, message):
    await message.forward("me")

app = Client("my_account")

my_handler = MessageHandler(my_function)
app.add_handler(my_handler)

app.run()

The same about synchronous handlers applies for add_handler():

def my_function(client, message):
    message.forward("me")

Note

From now on, you’ll see examples using synchronous code (i.e.: without async and await, unless when actually relevant). This is done to keep snippets concise and more readable. Once you get the idea behind a feature, you can easily turn examples asynchronous later on.